Tuesday, April 29, 2014


The following list was obtained, with permission, from the L-Camera Forum, the world's largest Leica community.

You can find the L-Camera-Forum at www.l-camera-forum.com

  • David Farkas from Red Dot Forum published a comprehensive LEICA T review, even including a demonstration of the App. (Update 4-29-2014)
  • Camera West could also take a closer look on the camera and shared some DNG files already. In addition you can pre-order the LEICA T in their online shop. (Update 4-29-2014)
  • Jonathan Slack: Forum member Jono had the opportunity to test the new camera as well. He shares his thoughts in this interesting review – Testing Taifun . . . The new Leica T
  • Leica Camera offers a lot interesting information around the new camera and comes up with a new website design and content.
  • Ming Thein was allowed to test the LEICA T as one of the first user and describes his experience in this interesting review.
  • Steve Huff: As usual Steve has created a complete review about the new camera with great images and a 34 min. video review.
  • The Photoblographer also contributes a first impression article on the LEICA T.
  • The Luminous Landscape shared a review, too.
  • Kristian Dowling published a complexe and informative review with information about the camera, practical use and facts about the accessories
  • Reviewed.com shared a complex test of the Taifun.
  • ePHOTOzine offers a number of product images and a short hands-on about the LEICA T (Type 701).
  • dpreview was allowed to check the camera and shared a short article.
  • photography blog: Mark Goldstein shows some sample images.
  • TechRadar presents a short review of the LEICA T (Type 701).

Monday, April 28, 2014



A little known accessory for Leica screw mount cameras is the VACU.  It was made in a variety of versions.  It offered the use of flash equipment with Leica cameras up to the Leica IIIc.  Its replacement, the Leica IIIf was the first model with built-in flash synch.

Leitz made several versions, all with their own catalog designation. Ranging from CAVOO-A to CAVOO-F.
The CAVOO-A was to be used with the Leica III, the CAVOO-B was for the Leica IIIa and IIIb and several versions for the "c" model Leicas, from CAVOO-C to CAVOO-F.

The unit consisted of a small trigger device that screwed onto the shutter release of the camera.  It worked in conjunction with a small cam that attached to the shutter release dial.  When releasing the shutter, the rotating shutter speed dial would activate a small switch via the cam to fire the flash.  This in turn was connected to the VACU via a short cord with a PC fitting.

Leitz Vacu

The cam attachment came in four different versions depending what model Leica it was for.  A word of caution; I have seen versions of the VACU offered for sale from time to time, but in each case the cam was missing, therefore rendering the unit incomplete and useless.

Cam attached to shutter speed dial

Trigger Switch

The position of the cam on the shutter speed dial is critical because it determines the position of the shutter curtains at the moment the flash is triggered.  Rotating it back or forth will allow for exact positioning.

That, of course, requires a means to see if the flash is fired at the correct moment.  For this there is a very simple solution as explained in the article “TESTING LEICA SM CAMERAS FOR PROPER FLASH SYNCH” from March 8, 2012 on this blog.

VACU on Leica III  Front View

VACU on Leica III  Rear View

The first Leica I ever owned, a Leica III, was equipped with a VACU.  I still consider it one of my prized possessions and I fondly remember leaning to take pictures with this camera, including flash pictures.  It is a great camera to learn with because everything is manual.  It created useful habits that I still practice today.  For instance, after getting many severely blurred pictures, in spite of careful focusing, I learned that it is advisable to pull out the collapsible Summar f/2 before shooting.

Leica III with VACU

But that is ultimately a different story.  I don’t use the Leica III very often anymore in these days of digital photography.  But it does take up a prominent spot in my Leica collection, together with the VACU attachment in place on the camera.


A while ago I got into a discussion with a colleague about digital photography and Photoshop.  He still prefers to use film and argued that all pictures should be shown “the way the camera saw them, the way they come out of the camera” and he went on to say that Photoshop should not be used.

I definitely disagree with that and answered: “Why?  Digital photography and Photoshop have considerably lowered my overhead (no film to buy, no processing costs) and I have full control over the final looks of my images instead of having to rely on some lab’s idea about what my images should look like.  Film is a thing of the past.  Just because Photoshop is available doesn't mean that the photographer doesn’t need the same skills as in the film days.  Composition, lighting etc. are still as important as ever.  Shooting digital is essentially nothing more than using a different means to record the image.  The addition of Photoshop has enabled us to control the final outcome of our photographs to a greater degree than ever before which, when used correctly, will ultimately deliver the best quality images possible.”

He answered: “However, when you change that image to some other image, then it is a second image.  I know what you are saying but I also know that you change some of your images to make them into something else.....and so do others.  I just happen to think that the original image is what the end result should be.”

I answered: “I understand what you are saying.  However, just because Photoshop has the ability to substantially alter an original image doesn’t mean that its use will always lead to that.  Photoshop offers the ability to ‘tweak’ our photographs to ultimately end up with better results.  We have the ability to alter contrast and color saturation, both of which are much easier to do with Photoshop than during the film days.  In the past photographers routinely retouched their photographs to reduce blemishes, for instance.  Photographers used changes in exposure and development to reduce or increase contrast.  Are these accepted methods really any different than using Photoshop to obtain the same results?  Isn’t either approach effectively altering the image from what the camera saw?  Then, of course, there is the question of what the ultimate purpose of taking a photograph is.  Isn’t the final image, as envisioned by the photographer, what counts?  In the past we used methods like solarization, for instance.  That certainly is a considerable departure from what the initial photograph looked like, the same goes for posterization or bas relief images, all of which were routinely used to create photographic art beyond the original image as it came out of the camera.  If those methods were okay in the past, then why isn’t the use of Photoshop acceptable as a means to create pieces of art derived from otherwise ordinary photographs.  Even simple cropping is altering an image beyond what originally came out of the camera.  Since none of us is perfect, we naturally get often useless photographs because of a variety of reasons.  In many cases Photoshop has enabled me to save such photographs with the help of Photoshop.  I see that as a benefit.

I have come across similar opinions fairly often and I wonder if it is really a conviction or if it is more a resistance to change, combined with an underlying fear of learning a new method of working with our photographs.

To which extend Photoshop or similar programs are going to be used ultimately is a personal preference and opinion.  However, it is a tool that should not be rejected off hand.  If we are honest about our own work, most of us probably reject or throw away more of our photographs than we save and with digital photography that ratio has most likely increased.  But with Photoshop we also have the possibility to save an otherwise useless picture and make it into something worth keeping.


This is a picture my wife took at a wedding.  The original was nothing special and it was almost deleted.  However, after taking a closer look, she asked me to apply my Photoshop skills.  I tightly cropped the group to remove as much as possible of the clutter in the room which was further eliminated with various Photoshop tools.  I then modified the image to give it a painting like appearance.  The final result certainly is not at all what came out of the camera, but it is a photograph worth keeping.  As it turned out, it is one of the favorites of the bride.


The above photograph was taken by my father with a Leica III in Hamburg in 1949.  He enhanced the sunrays in the background by carefully applying graphite dust to the rays on the negative to lighten them and thus make them stand out more.

Two photographs, both manipulated to allow for a better end-result.  Both photographs that would have less impact, which would be visually less pleasing, had they not been enhanced.  There should be no question that Photoshop or conventional retouching are means that enable us to make our photographs better than what our cameras are capable of doing by themselves.  I consider that something very worthwhile.

Thursday, April 24, 2014


It is a known fact that Leica goes to quite an extend to assure the quality of their equipment.  With introduction of the new Leica T we learned that the camera body is not only milled from a solid block of aluminum, as a finished touch the camera is then polished for 45 minutes – by hand.  Here is a video that shows the entire process.  To be honest, it is a little bit like watching paint dry, but it clearly shows that Leica is not taking any shortcuts with this camera.  Just skip ahead from time to time and you will see the many painstaking steps involved with this process.


Technical Data LEICA T

Camera type              Leica T

Lens connection        Leica T bayonet fitting with contact strip for communication between lens and camera

Lens system              Leica T lenses

Sensor            CMOS sensor, size APS-C (23.6 x 15.7 mm) with 16.5/16.3 million pixels (total/effective), format aspect ratio 3:2

Resolution     JPEG: 4928 x 3264 (16 megapixels), 4272 x 2856 (12.2 megapixels), 3264 x 2160 (7 megapixels), 2144 x 1424 (3 megapixels), 1632 x 1080 (1.8 megapixel), DNG: 4944 x 3278 pixels

Picture data file formats / compression rates     Selectable: JPG Superfine, JPG Fine, DNG + JPG Superfine, DNG + JPG Fine

Video recording format       MP4

Video resolution / frame rate        Selectable: 1920 x 1080 p, 30 fps or 1280 x 720 p, 30 fps

Storage media           16 GB internal memory; SD/SDHC/SDXC memory cards, multimedia cards

ISO range       Automatic, ISO 100 to ISO 12500

White balance           Automatic, presets for daylight, cloud, halogen lighting, shadow, electronic flash, two manual settings, manual color temperature setting

Autofocus system     Contrast based

Autofocus metering methods        Single point, multiple point, spot, face detection, touch AF

Exposure modes       Automatic program, aperture priority, shutter speed priority, manual setting, scene exposure modes: Fully automatic, sport, portrait, landscape, night portrait, snow/beach, fireworks, candlelight, sunset

Exposure metering               Multiple field, center weighted, spot

Exposure compensation      ±3 EV in 1/3 EV increments

Automatic bracketing          Three pictures in graduations up to ±3 EV, adjustable in 1/3 EV increments

Shutter speed range            30 s to 1/4000 s

Picture series            Approx. 5 fps, 12 pictures with constant picture frequency, then depending on memory card properties

Flash modes              Automatic, automatic / red eye reduction, always on, always on / red eye reduction, slow sync, slow sync / red eye reduction

Flash exposure compensation        ±3 EV in 1/3 EV increments

Flash synchronization          Sync time: 1/180 s

Guide number of built-in flash unit           for ISO 100: 4.5

Recovery time of built-in flash unit           Approx. 5 s with fully charged battery
Monitor          3.7″ TFT LCD , 1.3 million pixels, 854×480 per color channel

Self timer       Selectable delay time 2 or 12 s

WLAN             Complies with IEEE 802.11b/g/n standard (standard WLAN protocol), channel 1-11, encryption method: WiFicompatible WPA™ / WPA2™, access method: Infrastructur operation

Power supply            Leica BP-DC13 lithium ion battery, rated voltage 7.4V, capacity 1040mAh (based on CIPA standard): approx. 400 pictures, charging time (after total discharge): approx. 160 min

Connections              Micro USB port (2.0 High Speed), Leica flash interface with integrated connection for optional accessories; battery charging via USB connection possible with max. 1A

Charger          Leica BC-DC13, input: AC 100-240V, 50/60Hz, automatic reversing, Output: DC 8,4V 0,65A, Weight: approx. 90 g, Dimensions: approx. 96x68x28 mm

Body   Leica unibody solid aluminum design, two removable dummy plugs for carrying strap and other accessories, ISO flash shoe with center and control contacts for connection of more powerful external flash units, e.g. Leica SF 26, or for attaching the Leica Visoflex electronic viewfinder

Tripod thread            A 1/4 DIN 4503 (1/4″)

Dimensions (WxHxD)           134 x 69 x 33 mm

Weight           Approx. 384 g / 339 g (with / without battery)

Items supplied          Camera body, carrying strap, 2 carrying strap release pins for detaching the carrying strap, battery (Leica BP-DC13), charger (Leica BC-DC13) with 6 adapter plugs, USB cable

Software        Adobe® Photoshop® Lightroom® (free download after registration of camera), Leica T app for iOS® (remote control and image transfer, free download from Apple® App-Store®)

Technical Data LEICA VARIO-ELMAR-T 18–56 mm f/3.5–5.6 ASPH.

Compatible cameras            All Leica T models

Field angle (diagonal, horizontal, vertical)            At 18 mm: Approx. 75°, 62°, 41°, At 56 mm: Approx. 28°, 23°, 15°, corresponding to around 27-84 mm focal length in 35 mm format

Optical design:

Number of lenses / groups 10/7

Aspherical surfaces  4

Position of entrance pupil (at infinity / at close up limit)           At 18 mm: -37.8/19.9 mm, at 56 mm: -28/49.7 mm (in direction of light incidence behind / in front of bayonet mount)

Distance setting:

Setting / Function     Electronically controlled, mode selectable using camera menu: Automatic (AF) or manual (M), in AF mode manual override possible at any times with setting dial

Focusing range          0.3/0.45 m (at 18/56 mm) to ∞

Smallest object field / Largest scale          At 18 mm: Approx. 312 x 207 mm / 1:13.2, at 56 mm: Approx. 110 x 73 mm / 1:7.5

Setting / Function     Electronically controlled, adjustment using dial on camera, third values also available
Lowest value  16

Bayonet fitting          Leica T quick-change bayonet with contact strip for Leica T models
Filter mount / Lens hood     External bayonet fitting for lens hood (included), internal thread for E52 filters, filter mount does not rotate

Finish  Black anodized

Dimensions and weight:

Length to bayonet mount   Approx. 60/99 mm (without/with lens hood)

Largest diameter      Approx. 63/73 mm (without/with lens hood)

Weight           Approx. 256/287 g (without/with lens hood)

Technical Data LEICA SUMMICRON-T 23mm f/2 ASPH.

Compatible cameras            All Leica T models

Field angle (diagonal, horizontal, vertical)            Approx. 64°, 53°, 35°, corresponding to around 35 mm focal length in 35 mm format

Optical design:

Number of lenses / groups 9/6

Aspherical surfaces  2

Position of entrance pupil (at infinity / at close up limit)           -22,7/10,5 mm (in direction of light incidence behind /in front of bayonet mount)

Distance setting:

Setting / Function     Electronically controlled, mode selectable using camera menu: Automatic (AF) or manual (M), in AF mode manual override possible at any times with setting dial

Focusing range          0.3 m to ∞

Smallest object field / Largest scale          Approx.: 295 x 196 mm / 1:12.6


Setting / Function     Electronically controlled, adjustment using dial on camera, third values also available
Lowest value  16

Bayonet fitting          Leica T quick-change bayonet with contact strip for Leica T models
Filter mount / Lens hood     External bayonet fitting for lens hood (included), internal thread for E52 filters, filter mount does not rotate

Finish  Black anodized

Dimensions and weight:

Length to bayonet mount   Approx. 37/69 mm (without/with lens hood)

Largest diameter      Approx. 63/73 mm (without/with lens hood)

Weight           Approx. 154/186 g (without/with lens hood)

For information on the Leica T and Leica T Lenses go to:


The rumors have ended and the real story of the new Leica T can be told.  As I said before, I don’t like to participate in the rumor mill, even though many of them proved to be correct.  I rather waited to get the official input from Leica, so here it is:

Leica presents an entirely new camera system that is radically new yet brilliantly familiar. The new Leica T system celebrates 100 years of tradition and innovation.

Leica has been praised for a century for it's precise engineering while understanding the importance of design. We have created tools that are the perfect balance of purpose and emotion. At the heart of this praise stands the perfect blend of form and functionality with the Leica T-Unibody. Painstakingly made by hand and machined from a single, solid block of aluminium, the Leica T is a camera with a sleek and tactile finish and two high-performance lenses to create images that allow man and machine to live in perfect harmony.  

Designed by Audi, the camera is...


Built according to the traditions of the art of engineering. The Leica T-System is the world’s first camera with a body made completely of aluminium. Machined from a single block of solid metal and polished by hand for 45 minutes. The outcome: the innovative and groundbreaking unibody – unique in both look and feel.

Leica T

Leica T Details


Outstanding picture quality

A large APS-C sensor with 16.5 megapixels ensures colour fidelity, the finest details and pictures with exceptional brightness and clarity, even in unfavourable lighting conditions. And even on large-format screens. And for pin-sharp videos in full HD resolution. Top performance at the press of a button. Fast, precise and almost silent autofocus. Exactly like the newly developed image processor, which instantaneously displays the results on the big touchscreen display.

Best-in-class lenses

Leica lenses enjoy an exceptional reputation. And no wonder – Leica has more than 150 years of experience in the development of precision optical instruments. The T-System is built using our vast know-how and dedication to perfection. The result? Exceptional imaging performance that’s visible in every picture. For the incomparable Leica bokeh.

Masterpieces of optical design

For photographers around the world, Leica lenses are synonymous with exceptional imaging quality. A seal of excellence that is also earned by the lenses of the Leica T-System. That’s because they benefit from 150 years of experience in the development of precision optical instruments, are masterpieces of optical design and the best lenses in their class. They are constructed with perfectly harmonised glass types, inner mechanisms planned out down to the tiniest details and constitute our fastest and quietest autofocus system. Two of these lenses are available to you today and will be followed by others at the beginning of 2015. To ensure the best equipment for the best pictures.

SUMMICRON-T 23mm f/2

The Summicron-T has a focal length of 23 mm – in terms of 35 mm format, this corresponds to 35 mm – the focal length of the legendary Leica lenses for reportage photography. A truly classical focal length that lets you realise the pictures you see in your mind’s eye and exploit the potential of creative expression! Just as legendary is the maximum aperture of f/2, with which you can bring to life the unmistakeable Leica bokeh. And create your own iconic photos.

Leica Summicron-T 23 mm f/2 ASPH.

LEICA VARIO-ELMAR-T 18–56 mm f/3.5–5.6 ASPH.

No matter whether you’re shooting landscapes, documentaries or portraits, the Leica Vario-Elmar-T, the all-round lens for the T-System, lets you capture rich-in-detail, high-contrast photos that are sharp from edge to edge and corner to corner, even in unfavorable light. This compact standard zoom covers a range of focal lengths from 28 to 85 mm and guarantees pictures with the wonderful signature Leica bokeh.

Leica Vario-Elmar-T 18–56 mm f/3.5–5.6 ASPH.

Additional lenses will become available in 2015

Sharing has never been so easy

The integrated Wi-Fi module lets you transfer pictures directly from your Leica T to a smartphone, tablet PCs or computer. With the ease of wireless communication. You can also share your pictures quickly and easily on social media or by email with the Leica T app for iOS or the Browser Gallery on Android devices. Particularly practical: With the remote function of the Leica T app, you can, for example, use your smartphone or tablet PC as an electronic viewfinder and shoot with your Leica T by remote control.

Simple and brilliant

The generously sized 3.7" touchscreen with maximum detail resolution takes up almost the entire back of the camera. Handling is particularly intuitive. Simply touch the screen to focus and compose your picture, and check and review your pictures with a swipe. Simply clever: Set up the menu of your Leica T to meet your personal needs. Then just call up your favourites in the MyCamera menu. You decide what you need.

Lots of memory

Forgot to bring along a memory card? No problem – just use the built-in 16 GB memory of the Leica T. Of course, the camera also features a slot for SD, SDHC and SDXC memory cards. We really did think of everything. To let you think about nothing but your pictures.

It’s all just a click away

The Easy-Click system of the Leica T is unique in the world of cameras. It stylishly and conveniently connects accessories like the carrying strap and the wrist strap to your camera. The accessories are attached by a stainless steel pin that is simply pressed into the click-lock mechanism on the body of the Leica T. Removing them is also as easy as can be: the accessories are just as easy to detach, with a quick and easy movement.

System-to-system compatibility

The lenses of the Leica M-System are arguably the best 35 mm lenses in the world. Thanks to the M-Adapter T, more than 20 of them can also be used with the T-System! The sensor for six-bit coded M-Lenses ensures that the Leica T knows which lens is mounted and can provide full support for functions like exposure metering, aperture priority exposure and manual control.

M-Adapter T



Entirely new angles

The high-resolution Visoflex electronic accessory viewfinder was designed exclusively for the T-System. Its tilt-and-swivel function lets you shoot from all sorts of angles, opening up new possibilities to expand your creative horizons. A sensor detects the user’s eye. A look through the viewfinder turns off the camera display. As soon as you take it away from your eye, the display comes back to life. Just as practical: integrated GPS that can be activated whenever you need it.


As more details become available, we will of course report on that.   Meanwhile, read all about the Leica T on the Leica Camera AG website:

Wednesday, April 23, 2014


Being the first viable 35mm camera ever, the Leica has been copied more than any other camera.  Thus the Leica is also responsible for putting some of its competition on the market.  The Leica is the cornerstone of 35mm photography and there should be no doubt that photography as we know it today would be much different without Oskar Barnack, Max Berek, Ernst Leitz II and the original prototype, the Ur-Leica from 1913.

As soon as the Leica had proven that 35mm photography was to be taken seriously, other companies followed with their own cameras in this new field of photography.  The second 35mm camera to reach the market was the Zeiss Contax, soon followed by the Kodak Retina, made by the old Nagel company in Germany.  It wasn't until later that Nikon and Canon joined the ever growing field of 35mm photography.

Nikkor Q.C 5cm f3.5 Coll. Leica SM  #7052697  Nikkor-QC 50mm f/3.5

  Leitz 50mm Elmar f/3.5

W-Nikkor.C 1:3.5 f=3.5cm in Leica M39 thread screw mount  W-Nikkor C 35mm f/3.5

  Leitz Summaron 35mm f/3.5

Optical design for W-Nikkor.C 1:3.5 f=3.5cm (35mm f/3.5) wideangle lens  W-Nikkor C 35mm f/3.5    Leitz Elmar 35mm f/3.5

Both Nikon and Canon got their start by copying lenses and cameras made by Leitz and Zeiss.  There are quite a number of lenses made by Nikon which are clearly copys of some of the Leica lenses of the time, complete with the Leica screw mount.  While the early Canon cameras were quite obviously based on Leica cameras.  Nikon, on the other hand, chose to copy the Zeiss Contax.  But there was more to the camera than what met the eye.  The camera body was clearly a copy of the Zeiss Contax, including the rangefinder and the lens mount.  But the shutter was definitely not a Zeiss design.  Upon closer inspection it was obvious that it was taken entirely from the Leica.  That decision apparently had been made because it was of a much less complicated design (thanks Oskar Barnack) and thus much more reliable than the vertically traveling, roller desk top type shutter of the Contax.  The Leica shutter was copied in virtually all details resulting in the Nikon being one of the very few cameras that utilized a collar type cable release.

Nikon Optical Finders - LINK  Viewfinder copy -  The resemblance to the Leitz VIDOM is obvious.

Several years later, when it became apparent that rangefinder cameras would be replaced by single lens reflex (SLR) cameras, Nikon simply converted the Nikon rangefinder camera to an SLR by eliminating the rangefinder from the camera and adding a mirror housing.  Thus the original Nikon F was born.  It too featured the Leica shutter, virtually unchanged.  The Nikon F soon became one of the most successful, professional SLRs on the market and Leica technology was a definite part of that.

Using the Leica shutter offered another, little known feature, mostly unknown to even Leica users. The Leica shutter used by Nikon was that of the Leica screw mount cameras and it made those Leicas, the Nikon rangefinder and Nikon F SLRs the only cameras to ever incorporate that feature.

It was the ability to allow double exposure with perfect registration, but not just simple double exposures on the last frame but with any frame that had been exposed on the roll of film.

Users of these cameras might have noticed that the shutter release button turns when rewinding the film.  To make a double exposure on the last exposed frame all that is necessary is to activate the rewind release and winding the film back for one full revolution of the shutter release button and then go beyond that for not quite another half revolution.  After that the camera has to be switched back to the film advance mode and the film transport knob or advance lever moved to cock the shutter.  This will also advance the film which will automatically stop with perfect registration on the last exposed frame.  At this point the second exposure can be taken on that frame.  Repeating the above steps will allow unlimited exposures on the same frame.

  Leica III

  Nikon F

Please notice the identical position of the shutter speed dial, the shutter release and the film advance.  This is due to both cameras using virtually identical shutters.

To take additional exposures on any previous frame one needs to do the same procedure as above.  Except rather than winding the film back just one revolution of the shutter release knob, one needs to make it do as many revolutions as the number of frames the one is back that is to receive the additional exposure.  Don’t forget to go about one half revolution beyond, activate the advance until it stops and take the exposure.

To go back to taking a new picture, block any light from entering the lens and take as many ‘blind’ exposures as the number of frames you wound back.

This might require some practice.  To do that with any accuracy, take an old, unexposed or undeveloped roll of film and load it into the camera.  With the camera set on ‘B’ and with the lens removed, take several frames and mark the outline with a pen and number the frames consecutively.  This will allow you to practice the above procedure with any number of frames.

WestLicht auction in Vienna showed another example of Leica tech used by Nikon.

Nikon Stereo Nikkor 35mm f/3.5

The Nikon Stereo-Nikkor 35mm f/3.5 outfit consisted of a stereo lens and stereo prism for the Nikon rangefinder cameras.  Introduced in 1956, it bears more than a close resemblance to the Leitz Stereoly, first introduced in 1931 and later replaced by an improved model in 1954.

Patent drawing of the Leitz Stereoly attachment

Image of Leica 11
Leitz Stereoly on early Leica II

Leitz 33mm f/3.5 Stemar

In either case, this stereo equipment produced two half frame stereo images in place of the standard 35mm frame.  Stereo viewers and projector accessories allowed for stereo viewing of the images taken.

Thus we have another example of the influence Leica has had on other manufacturers over the years.  Leica cameras and accessories remain the most copied photographic equipment in history.

All of this cannot be taken as proof that Nikon would never have existed without the help of Leica, but by taking the established technology of Leica (and Zeiss), Nikon was definitely able to get a head start